Kaskaskia is located in South Western Illinois. The town of Kaskaskia was built below the bluffs which now sit above the Mississippi River. The bluffs became the location of the French built Fort Kaskaskia which was constructed during the years of 1754-1763. This period was during the French and Indian War. In 1763 the Treaty of Paris was prepared in which France ceded all land east of the Mississippi to Britain and Kaskaskia came under British rule. Many of the inhabitants left Kaskaskia, Prairie du Rocher, Fort Chartes, and Cahokia and moved in large numbers to Ste. Genevieve which was still French territory. In 1766 the Kaskaskians destroyed the fort rather than have the British occupy it. Indications of Fort Kaskaskia can still be seen on the bluff and is now a state park.
The British built Fort Gage as replacement. It included a large stone building that had been used as a Jesuit mission until the British suppressed the religious order and converted the structure into a barracks for their use.
The Catholic Church of the Immaculate Conception was built in Kaskaskia.
A 650lb bell was cast in La Rochelle, France in 1741 and sent by King
Louis XV to be used in the Church.
During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark led an expedition across southern Illinois. On July 4, 1778, Clark surprised the British and liberated the town without firing a shot. In celebration, the Kaskaskians rang the parish bell, which became known as the "Liberty Bell of the West."
Kaskaskia served as an Illinois territorial capital and the first state capital of Illinois from 1818-1820. In 1844 a major flood destroyed parts of Kaskaskia. Continued flooding from 1844-1910 gradually destroyed the old settlement. During the flood of 1881 the peninsula which jutted into the river was cut off. The raging waters cut a new channel which effectively carried the tract of land across the river creating an island which now makes Kaskaskia the only part of Illinois laying west of the Mississippi main branch. In 1891 the church was relocated and the bell was found to be cracked. It was placed in a protected shelter in 1948 and can still be viewed in Kaskaskia.